UNIT 9. PREHISTORY.



9.1.1. PALAEOLITHIC.


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9.1.2. AUSTRALOPITHECUS.
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9.1.3. HOMO SAPIENS NEANDERTHALENSIS.
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9.1.4. TOOLS.

Chopping Tools.
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Bifaces.
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Trabajo con lascas.
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9.1.5. Documental en Youtube "La odisea de la Especie" de TVE.



9.1.6. "ÉRASE UNA VEZ EL HOMBRE": EL HOMBRE DE NEANDERTHAL. EL HOMBRE DE CROMAGNON.


9.2. NEOLITHIC.





9.3. PALAEOLITHIC AND NEOLITHIC ART.

9.3.1. CAVE PAINTINGS.


9.3.2. VENUS.

A Venus figurine is any Upper Paleolithic statuette portraying a woman. Most of them have small heads and wide hips. Various figurines exaggerate the abdomen, hips, breasts, thighs, or vulva. In contrast, arms and feet are often absent, and the head is usually small and faceless.

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The Venus of Willendorf is an 11.1-centimetre-high statuette of a female figure estimated to have been made between about 28,000 and 25,000 BC. It was found in 1908 during excavations conducted by archaeologists r at a palaeolithic site near Willendorf, a village in Lower Austria

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The Venus of Dolní Věstonice is a Venus figurine, a ceramic statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 BC. It was found at the Palaeolithic site Dolní Věstonice (Czech Republic). It has a height of 11.1 centimetres and a width of 4.3 centimetres at its widest point and is made of a clay.

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The Venus of Laussel is a 46.0-centimetre high limestone bas-relief of a nude woman. It is painted with red ochre and was carved into the limestone of a rock shelter in south-western France. It is approximately 25,000 years old . The figure holds a bison horn, or possibly a cornucopia, in one hand, which has thirteen notches. According to some researchers, this may symbolize the number of moons or the number of menstrual cycles in one year.

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The Venus of Brassempouy is a fragmentary ivory figurine from the Upper Palaeolithic. It was discovered in a cave in France in 1892. About 25,000 years old, it is one of the earliest known realistic representations of a human face.


9.3.3. SPEAR-THROWER.
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9.4. AGE OF METALS.

9.4.1. MEGALITHICS.

DOLMEN
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone, although there are also more complex variants. Most date from the early Neolithic (4000–3000 BC). Dolmens were typically covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. In many instances, that covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the burial mound intact. they are generally all regarded as tombs or burial chambers. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have been found in or close to the dolmens
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ANTEQUERA DOLMEN.
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The Dolmen of Menga is a megalithic burial mound called a tumulus, a long barrow form of dolmen, dating from the 3rd millennium BC. It is near Antequera, Málaga.

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It is one of the largest known ancient megalithic structures in Europe. It is 25 metres long, 5 metres wide and 4 metres high, and was built with thirty-two megaliths, the largest weighing about 180 tonnes. After completion of the chamber (which probably served as a grave for the ruling families) and the path leading into the center, the stone structure was covered with soil and built up into the hill that can be seen today. When the grave was opened and examined in the 19th century, archaeologists found the skeletons of several hundred people inside.

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MENHIR
A menhir is a large upright standing stone. Menhirs may be found solely as monoliths, or as part of a group of similar stones. Menhirs are widely distributed across Europe, Africa and Asia. However, they are most numerous in Western Europe; in particular in Ireland, Great Britain and Brittany (France). There are about 50,000 megaliths in these areas, while there are 1,200 menhirs in northwest France alone.
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CROMLECH-STONE CIRCLE.

A stone circle is a monument of standing stones arranged in a circle. Their original purpose is not fully known. It is widely thought that they served a ritual or ceremonial purpose, particularly in relation to solar and lunar alignments.

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“Stonehenge” was built between roughly 5,000 and 4,000 years ago and that forms just one part of a larger, and highly complex, sacred landscape.

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While there have been many theories as to why Stonehenge was constructed, recent discoveries indicate that Stonehenge’s landscape was a sacred area.

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The biggest of Stonehenge’s stones, known as sarsens, are up to 9 meters tall and 22.6 metric tons on average. It is widely believed that they were brought from Marlborough Downs, a distance of 32 kilometers to the north.

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CARNAC STONES.

The Carnac are an exceptionally dense collection of megalithic sites around the village of Carnac in Brittany (France), consisting of alignments, dolmens, tumuli and single menhirs. There are more than 3,000 prehistoric standing stones.

There are three major groups of stone rows: Ménec, Kermario and Kerlescan. Kemario Stones consists of 1029 stones in ten columns, about 1300 metres length. Kerlescan alignments consists of 555 stones composed in 13 lines and about 800 metres length.

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UNIT 10: MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPT

10.1. MESOPOTAMIA.







The Legend of Gilgamesh ().

The Hammurabi Code ().



10.2. EGYPT.



10.2.1. RIVER NILE.

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10.2.2. UPPER AND LOWER EGYPT.
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10.2.3. THE FLOOD.
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10.2.4. PYRAMIDS.

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Mastaba del Faraón en Saqqara.

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Pirámide escalonada del faraón Dyeser en Saqqara. Dinastía III (2700 AC)

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Ruinas de la pirámide en Meidum. Época del faraón Seneferu.


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Pirámide en Dashur. Época de Seneferu.

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Pirámide Roja en Dashur. Época de Seneferu.


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Pirámides de Jufu (Keops), Jafra (Kefrén) y Menkaura (Micerino). Gizah.


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10.2.5. PHARAOHS.

10.2.5.1. EARLY PHARAOHS.
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It contains some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found. The tablet is thought by some to depict the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the king Narmer. On one side, the king is depicted with the bulbed White Crown of Upper (southern) Egypt, and the other side depicts the king wearing the level Red Crown of Lower (northern) Egypt.

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The Scorpion Macehead depicts a single, large figure wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt. He holds a hoe, which has been interpreted as a ritual either involving the pharaoh ceremonially cutting the first furrow in the fields, or opening the dikes to flood them.

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Djet was the fourth pharaoh of the First Dynasty. Djet's Horus name means "Horus Cobra"] or "Serpent of Horus".


10.5.2.2. HATHSHEPSUT.



10.5.2.3. AKHENATON.
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He was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten.

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Depictions of members of the court, especially members of the royal family, are extremely stylized, with elongated heads, protruding stomachs, heavy hips, thin arms and legs, and exaggerated facial features.

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Akhenaten married Nefertiti. They had six daughters. But he married with a secondary wife (Tutankhamun was born from this relationship) and even married two of his daughters.


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Aten was usually depicted as a sun disk with rays extending with long arms and tiny human hands at each end. Akhenaten's fifth year also marked the beginning of construction on his new capital, Akhetaten or 'Horizon of Aten', at the site known today as Amarna.

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Very soon afterwards, he centralized Egyptian religious practices in Akhetaten. Aten was worshipped in the open sunlight rather than in dark temple enclosures as had been the previous custom.


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Akhenaten and Nefertiti.

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10.5.2.4. TUTANKHAMUN TOMB.
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Lord Carnarvon was an aristocrat best known as the financial backer of the search for and the excavation of Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

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He received in 1914 the concession to dig in the Valley of the Kings, in replacement of Theodore Davis who had resigned. In 1922, he and Howard Carter together opened the tomb of Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings, exposing treasures unsurpassed in the history of archaeology.


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In 1907, after three hard years for Carter, Lord Carnarvon employed him to supervise Carnarvon's Egyptian excavations in the Valley of the Kings. Carnarvon financed Carter's work in the Valley of the Kings to 1914, but excavations and study were interrupted until 1917 by the First World War. Carter enthusiastically resumed his work following the end of the First World War.

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After several years of finding little, Lord Carnarvon became dissatisfied with the lack of results, and informed Carter in 1922 that he had one more season of funding to search the Valley of the Kings and find the tomb.


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On 4 November 1922, Carter's excavation group found steps that Carter hoped led to Tutankhamun's tomb and he wired Lord Carnarvon to come to Egypt.

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Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC, during the period known as the New Kingdom.. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". According to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years.

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On 26 November 1922, Carter made a "tiny breach in the top left hand corner" of the doorway, with Carnarvon, his daughter Lady Evelyn Herbert, and others in attendance.

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On 16 February 1923, Carter opened the sealed doorway and found that it did indeed lead to a burial chamber, and he got his first glimpse of the sarcophagus of Tutankhamun.

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The clearance of the tomb with its thousands of objects continued until 1932.

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10.5.2.4. CLEOPATRA.


10.2.6. Women in Ancient Egypt ().

10.2.7. How to Make a Mummy ().




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10.2.8. THE AFTERLIFE.


10.2.9.. Egyptian Society Activity ().







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12.2.10. LAST OF THE PHARAOH:CLEOPATRA.



12.2.11. WHO WANTS TO BE A MILLIONAIRE: EGYPT EDITION.



UNIT 11. THE GREEK WORLD.


11.1. MINOIAN CIVILIZATION (CRETE).

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11.2.MYCENAEAN CIVILIZATION.

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11.3. THE ILIAD AND THE TROJAN HORSE ().
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11.4. GREEK COLONIZATION.

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11.5.MARATHON AND THE ANCIENT OLYMPIC GAMES ().

11.6. Érase una vez el hombre: EL SIGLO DE PERICLES.


11.7. THE TWELVE LABORS OF HERCULES.



11.8. GREECE CLASSICAL PERIOD: ATHENS AND SPARTA ().
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11.9. GREEK-PERSIAN WARS (Guerras Médicas).

11.9.1. PERSIAN EMPIRE at it's greatest expansion.
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11.9.2 GREEK-PERSIAN WARS ().
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11.10. PELOPONNESIAN WAR.

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11.11. Alexander the Great ().




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11.11.1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT BIOGRAPHY ().

11.11.2. Alexander the Great Pictures.
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11.12. HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS.
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11.3.GREEK GODS.



11.14. A virtual visit to Parthenon.





11.15. ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS.
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PARTHENON PEDIMENT.
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The east pediment represented the birth of Athena. According to Greek mythology Zeus gave birth to Athena after a terrible headache prompted him to summon Hephaestus’ (the god of fire and the forge) assistance. To alleviate the pain he ordered Hephaestus to strike him with his forging hammer, and when he did, Zeus’ head split open and out popped the goddess Athena in full armor.


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The west pediment depicted the contest between Athena and Poseidon during their competition for the honor of becoming the city’s patron. Athena and Poseidon appear at the center of the composition, diverging from one another in strong diagonal forms with the goddess holding the olive tree and the god of the sea raising his trident to strike the earth. At their flanks there are two active groups of horses pulling chariots, while a crowd of legendary personalities from Athenian mythology fills the space out to the acute corners of the pediment.

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PARTHENON METOPES.
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PARTHENON FRIEZE.

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11.16. THE OLYMPIC GAMES.


11.18. GREEK ART.










13.3. Romulus and Remus Listening Activity ().

13.4. Punic Wars ()



13.7. Christianity in the Roman Empire and the Division of the Empire ()

13.8 Fall of the Roman Empire ().