UNIT 9. PREHISTORY.


9.1.1. PALAEOLITHIC.


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9.1.2. AUSTRALOPITHECUS.
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9.1.3. HOMO SAPIENS NEANDERTHALENSIS.
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9.1.4. TOOLS.

Chopping Tools.
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Bifaces.
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Trabajo con lascas.
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9.1.5. Documental en Youtube "La odisea de la Especie" de TVE.



9.1.6. "ÉRASE UNA VEZ EL HOMBRE": EL HOMBRE DE NEANDERTHAL. EL HOMBRE DE CROMAGNON.


9.2. NEOLITHIC.





9.3. PALAEOLITHIC AND NEOLITHIC ART.

9.3.1. CAVE PAINTINGS.


9.3.2. VENUS.

A Venus figurine is any Upper Paleolithic statuette portraying a woman. Most of them have small heads and wide hips. Various figurines exaggerate the abdomen, hips, breasts, thighs, or vulva. In contrast, arms and feet are often absent, and the head is usually small and faceless.

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The Venus of Willendorf is an 11.1-centimetre-high statuette of a female figure estimated to have been made between about 28,000 and 25,000 BC. It was found in 1908 during excavations conducted by archaeologists r at a palaeolithic site near Willendorf, a village in Lower Austria

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The Venus of Dolní Věstonice is a Venus figurine, a ceramic statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 BC. It was found at the Palaeolithic site Dolní Věstonice (Czech Republic). It has a height of 11.1 centimetres and a width of 4.3 centimetres at its widest point and is made of a clay.

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The Venus of Laussel is a 46.0-centimetre high limestone bas-relief of a nude woman. It is painted with red ochre and was carved into the limestone of a rock shelter in south-western France. It is approximately 25,000 years old . The figure holds a bison horn, or possibly a cornucopia, in one hand, which has thirteen notches. According to some researchers, this may symbolize the number of moons or the number of menstrual cycles in one year.

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The Venus of Brassempouy is a fragmentary ivory figurine from the Upper Palaeolithic. It was discovered in a cave in France in 1892. About 25,000 years old, it is one of the earliest known realistic representations of a human face.


9.3.3. SPEAR-THROWER.
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9.4. AGE OF METALS.

9.4.1. MEGALITHICS.

DOLMEN
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone, although there are also more complex variants. Most date from the early Neolithic (4000–3000 BC). Dolmens were typically covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. In many instances, that covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the burial mound intact. they are generally all regarded as tombs or burial chambers. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have been found in or close to the dolmens
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ANTEQUERA DOLMEN.
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The Dolmen of Menga is a megalithic burial mound called a tumulus, a long barrow form of dolmen, dating from the 3rd millennium BC. It is near Antequera, Málaga.

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It is one of the largest known ancient megalithic structures in Europe. It is 25 metres long, 5 metres wide and 4 metres high, and was built with thirty-two megaliths, the largest weighing about 180 tonnes. After completion of the chamber (which probably served as a grave for the ruling families) and the path leading into the center, the stone structure was covered with soil and built up into the hill that can be seen today. When the grave was opened and examined in the 19th century, archaeologists found the skeletons of several hundred people inside.

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MENHIR
A menhir is a large upright standing stone. Menhirs may be found solely as monoliths, or as part of a group of similar stones. Menhirs are widely distributed across Europe, Africa and Asia. However, they are most numerous in Western Europe; in particular in Ireland, Great Britain and Brittany (France). There are about 50,000 megaliths in these areas, while there are 1,200 menhirs in northwest France alone.
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CROMLECH-STONE CIRCLE.

A stone circle is a monument of standing stones arranged in a circle. Their original purpose is not fully known. It is widely thought that they served a ritual or ceremonial purpose, particularly in relation to solar and lunar alignments.

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“Stonehenge” was built between roughly 5,000 and 4,000 years ago and that forms just one part of a larger, and highly complex, sacred landscape.

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While there have been many theories as to why Stonehenge was constructed, recent discoveries indicate that Stonehenge’s landscape was a sacred area.

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The biggest of Stonehenge’s stones, known as sarsens, are up to 9 meters tall and 22.6 metric tons on average. It is widely believed that they were brought from Marlborough Downs, a distance of 32 kilometers to the north.

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CARNAC STONES.

The Carnac are an exceptionally dense collection of megalithic sites around the village of Carnac in Brittany (France), consisting of alignments, dolmens, tumuli and single menhirs. There are more than 3,000 prehistoric standing stones.

There are three major groups of stone rows: Ménec, Kermario and Kerlescan. Kemario Stones consists of 1029 stones in ten columns, about 1300 metres length. Kerlescan alignments consists of 555 stones composed in 13 lines and about 800 metres length.

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UNIT 10: MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPT

10.1. MESOPOTAMIA.







The Legend of Gilgamesh ().

The Hammurabi Code ().



10.2. EGYPT.

10.2.1. PYRAMIDS.

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Mastaba del Faraón en Saqqara.

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Pirámide escalonada del faraón Dyeser en Saqqara. Dinastía III (2700 AC)

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Ruinas de la pirámide en Meidum. Época del faraón Seneferu.


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Pirámide en Dashur. Época de Seneferu.

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Pirámide Roja en Dashur. Época de Seneferu.


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Pirámides de Jufu (Keops), Jafra (Kefrén) y Menkaura (Micerino). Gizah.


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10.2.2. Women in Ancient Egypt ().

10.2.3. How to Make a Mummy ().

10.2.4. Egyptian Society Activity ().







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UNIT 11. THE GREEK WORLD.


11.1. Trojan Horse ().

11.2. Marathon and the Ancient Olympic Games ().

11.3. Érase una vez el hombre: el siglo de Pericles.


11.4. The Twelve Labors of Hercules ().

11.5. Athens and Sparta ().

11.6. Greek-Persian Wars (Guerras Médicas).

11.6.1. Persian Empire at it's greatest expansion.
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11.6..2 Greco-Persian Wars ().
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11.7. Peloponnesian War.

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11.8. Alexander the Great ().


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11.8.1. Alexander the Great Biography ().

11.9. Alexander the Great Pictures.
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11.10. Los reinos Helenísticos.
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11.10. A virtual visit to Parthenon.


UNIT 13, THE ROMAN EMPIRE.


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Evolución territorial del Imperio Romano.

13.1. Érase una vez el hombre: la Pax Romana.


13.2. Water supply for an ordinary Roman city.


13.3. Romulus and Remus Listening Activity ().

13.4. Punic Wars ()

13.5 Julius Caesar.

13.6. The Empire.
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13.7. Christianity in the Roman Empire and the Division of the Empire ()

13.8 Fall of the Roman Empire ().

13.9. La Antigua Roma en 3D.


13.10. Roman Baths, Colosseum and Circus Maximus.