Prueba Inicial 4º ESO 2013()


Prueba Inicial 4º ESO 2014 ().


October 23rd 2013 Strike: images of a decade .


Clil Unit First Term: Migration.


Clil Unit Second Term: Women's Rights.


Women Right to Vote Texts ().

UNIT 1. 18 TH CENTURY: ANCIENT REGIME ().


1.1. Enlightenment Thinkers ()

1.2. Divine Right Monarchy: some monarchs chosen by God to rule their countries.

Louis XIV (France, 1643-1715)
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Charles II (Spain, 1665-1700).
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Charles II was the final king of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty , part of a house that ruled over much of Europe for centuries and which took Spain to the height of its international power. Concerned with their heritage within their bloodlines, the Spanish Habsburgs married heavily between each other. Most of their 11 marriages were between blood relatives, including several matches between first cousins and two between uncles and nieces. Charles’s own mother was the niece of his father, and his grandmother was also his aunt.Toward the end of his life Charles' fragile health deteriorated and he became increasingly hypersensitive and strange, at one point demanding that the bodies of his family be exhumed so he could look upon the corpses. He died in Madrid on 1 November 1700, five days before his 39th birthday. The physician who practiced his autopsy stated that his body "did not contain a single drop of blood; his heart was the size of a peppercorn; his lungs corroded; his intestines rotten and gangrenous; he had a single testicle, black as coal, and his head was full of water."On November 1st, 1700, an entire dynasty of kings came to a crashing end with the death of Charles II of Spain. Charles had neither a pleasant life nor a successful reign. He was physically disabled, mentally retarded and disfigured. A large tongue made his speech difficult to understand, he was bald by the age of 35, and he died senile and wracked by epileptic seizures. He had two wives but being impotent, he had no children and thus, no heirs. Which is what happens after 16 generations of inbreeding.As the American historians Will and Ariel Durant put it, Charles II was "short, lame, epileptic, senile, and completely bald before 35, he was always on the verge of death.

Philip V (Spain, 1700-1746)
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Frederick William (Prussia, 1688-1740)
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1.3. Europe by the year 1700.
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1.4. Enlightened Depostism ().





1.5. Spanish War of Succession (1701-1714) ().

1.5.1. Charles II (1665-1700).
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Prince Baltasar Carlos, Charles II's death brother.

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1.5.2. Philip vs Charles.
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Philip V (19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he assumed the throne again upon his son's death, to his own death 9 July 1746.Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King Louis XIV. His father, Louis, the Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. King Charles II of Spain named Philip as his heir in his will. It was well known that the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe, such that other European powers would take steps to prevent it. Indeed, Philip's accession in Spain provoked the 14-year War of the Spanish Succession, which continued until the Treaty of Utrecht forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish thrones.

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Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia(as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia, Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain as Charles III following the death of its ruler, and Charles's relative, Charles II of Spain, in 1700.



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1.6. Utrecht and Rastatt Treaties.
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UNIT 2. POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS (1776-1848) ()

2.1. The Indendependece of the United States of America ().

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2.1.1.Boston Tea Party.

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The Boston Tea Party (initially referred to by John Adams as "the Destruction of the Tea in Boston" was a political protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, on December 16, 1773. The demonstrators, some disguised as American Indians, destroyed an entire shipment of tea sent by the East India Company, in defiance of the Tea Act of May 10, 1773. They boarded the ships and threw the chests of tea into Boston Harbor, ruining the tea. The British government responded harshly and the episode escalated into the American Revolution.




2.1.2. Declaration of Independence.
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IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
  • He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
  • He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
  • He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
  • He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
  • He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
  • He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
  • He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
  • He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
  • He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
  • He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
  • He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
  • He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
  • He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
  • For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
  • For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
  • For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
  • For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
  • For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
  • For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
  • For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
  • For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
  • For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
  • He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
  • He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
  • He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
  • He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
  • He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.



2.1.3. The politicians of the Independence.
George Washington
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George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the first President of the United States (1789–97), the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention that drafted the current United States Constitution and during his lifetime was called the "father of his country"

James Madison.
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James Madison, Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, political theorist, and the fourth President of the United States (1809–17). He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the U.S. Constitution and as the key champion and author of the Bill of Rights. He served as a politician much of his adult life.

Thomas Jefferson
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Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of theDeclaration of Independence (1776), and the third President of the United States (1801–1809). He was an ardent proponent of democracy and embraced the principles of republicanism and the rights of the individual. At the beginning of the American Revolution, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress, and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781). In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France and later the first United States Secretary of State, (1790–1793), serving under President George Washington.

Benjamin Franklin.
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Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A renowned polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and a university


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John Adams, Jr. (October 301735 – July 4, 1826) was an American lawyer, author, statesman, and diplomat. He served as the second President of the United States (1797–1801), the first Vice President (1789–1797),and as a Founding Father was a leader of American independence from Great Britain. Adams was a political theorist in the Age of Enlightenment who promoted republicanism and a strong central government. His innovative ideas were frequently published. He was also a dedicated diarist and particularly correspondent, with his wife and key advisor Abigail.

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Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy


2.1.4. A trillion dollar bill????.



2.1.5. Spain in the American Revolutionary War Listening Activity ().

2.2. FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789).








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The Bastille was a medieval fortress used as a prison. Bastille represented the royal authority in the center of Paris and was seen as a symbol of the royal abuses. On the morning of 14th July, 1789, a mob stormed the prison and released seven prisoners. The Bastille was defended by Marquis de Launay. After four hours of fightin Launay surrendered. The victorious mob cut off his head and carried it in triumph through the streets of Paris.

2.2.1. 1789, economic and political crisis.
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2.2.2. The characters of the revolution.
Louis XVI.
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Louis was officially arrested on 13 August 1792, and sent to the Temple, an ancient fortress in Paris that was used as a prison. On 21 September, the National Assembly declared France to be a Republic and abolished the Monarchy.The Girondins wanted to keep the deposed king under arrest, both as a hostage and a guarantee for the future. The most radical deputies argued for Louis's immediate execution. The legal background of many of the deputies made it difficult for a great number of them to accept an execution without a trial.In November 1792, an incident took place at the Tuileries Palace, when the existence, in the king's bedroom, of the hidden safe containing compromising documents and correspondence.The resulting scandal discredit the king.On 11 December, among crowded and silent streets, the deposed king was brought from the Temple to stand before the Convention and hear his indictment, an accusation of high treason and crimes against the State.On 15 January 1793, the Convention, composed of 721 deputies, voted on the verdict. Given overwhelming evidence of Louis's collusion with the invaders, 693 deputies voted guilty, none for acquittal, with 23 abstaining. The next day, vote was carried out to decide upon the fate of the former king: 288 of the deputies voted against death and for some other alternative, mainly some means of imprisonment or exile; 72 of the deputies voted for the death penalty; 361 of the deputies voted for Louis's immediate death.On Monday, 21 January 1793, Louis XVI was beheaded by guillotine. As Louis XVI mounted the scaffold, he appeared dignified and resigned. He delivered a short speech in which he reasserted his innocence ("I pardon those who are the cause of my death.... "). He declared himself innocent of the crimes he was accused of, praying that his blood would not fall back on France. Many accounts suggest Louis XVI’s desire to say more, but a general in the National Guard, halted the speech AND then the former king was then quickly beheaded. While Louis's blood dripped to the ground many members of the crowd ran forward to dip their handkerchiefs in it.

Marie Antoinette.
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She was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal on 14 October. The Tribunal gave her less than one day to prepare her defence. Among the things she was accused of orchestrating orgies in Versailles, sending millions of livres of treasury money to Austria, plotting to kill the Duke of Orléans, incest with her son, her son to be the new king of France, and orchestrating the massacre of the Swiss Guards in 1792.On the same day of her execution, her hair was cut off and she was driven through Paris in an open cart, wearing a plain white dress. At 12:15 p.m. 16 October 1793, two and a half weeks before her thirty-eighth birthday, Marie Antoinette was beheaded.

Danton.
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Georges Jacques Danton (26 October 1759 – 5 April 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety. Danton played a key role in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic". Anyways, as he was a moderating influence on the Jacobins, he was guillotined during the age of Terror after accusations of being an enemy of the Revolution.

Robespierre.
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Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, and one of the most influential figures of the French Revolution.As a member of the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he opposed the death penalty and advocated the abolition of slavery, while supporting equality of rights, universal male suffrage and the establishment of a republic. As a member of the Committee of Public Safety, he was an important figure during the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror, which ended a few months after his arrest and execution in July 1794. He was accused of being the "headmaster" of the Terror.

Marat.
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Jean-Paul Marat (24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a physician, political theorist, scientist and a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution. His journalism became renowned for his compromise with the new leaders and institutions of the revolution, and advocacy of basic human rights for the poorest members of society.Marat was one of the most radical voices of the French Revolution. He became a defender of the sans-culottes, publishing his views in pamphlets and newspapers.Marat was assassinated by Charlotte Corday, a Girondist sympathizer, while taking a medicinal bath for his debilitating skin condition. In his death, Marat became an icon to the Jacobins, a sort of revolutionary martyr, as portrayed in David's famous paintingof his death.

Napoleón.
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Napoleon was born on 15 August 1769 in the town of Ajaccio, the capital of the island of Corsica. This was a year after the island was transferred to France by the Republic of Genoa. The Corsican Buonapartes were descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin, who had come to Corsica from Liguria in the 16th century.His father, an attorney, was named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777. In May 1779 he was admitted to a military academy. He always spoke with a marked Corsican accent and never learned to spell French properly. He trained to become an artillery officer. He was the first Corsican to graduate from the École Militaire.He served on garrison duty in Valence and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, and took nearly two years' leave in Corsica and Paris during this period. He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a complex three-way struggle among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. He supported the revolutionary Jacobin faction and was appointed captain.In July 1793, Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet, which gained him the admiration and support of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre. Bonaparte was appointed artillery commander of the republican forces at the siege of Toulon. The city had risen against the republican government and was occupied by British troops.


2.2.3. French Revolution 1789-95.()
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A guillotine is an apparatus designed for carrying out executions by beheading. The device is best known for its use in France, in particular during the French Revolution. The guillotine continued to be used long after the Revolution and remained France's standard method of judicial execution until the abolition of capital punishment with the backing of President François Mitterrand in 1981. The last person guillotined in France was Hamida Djandoubi, on 10 September 1977.


2.2.4. El Imperio Napoleónico ().
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Having won military prestige with his victorious campaigns in Italy and Egypt, Napoleon took power as First Consul after the coup d’état. In May 1804 he was proclaimed Emperor, and a coronation ceremony was held on December 2 of the same year at Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris. Moreover—like Charlemagne some 1000 years before—he was consecrated emperor by a pope. However, Napoleon crowned himself, facing the congregation rather than the high altar to mark his independence from the Church. Although David's initial sketch represented the Emperor in the act of crowning himself, the final painting shows him crowning the Empress.

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It shows Napoleon as emperor, in the costume he wore for his coronation and seated on a throne. In his right hand he holds the sceptre of Charlemagne and in his left the hand of justice. On his head is a golden laurel wreath, similar to one wore by Caesar. He also wears the great collar of the Légion d'honneur. The carpet under the throne displays an imperial eagle.
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Napoelon wanted to surprise the enemy, Austria, by bringing his army south through the Great St Bernard pass in the Alps in May 1800 before the snows have cleared. He himself slithers through the pass on a mule, but this does not deter the painter Jacques-Louis David from depicting him on a magnificent rearing stallion among the snowy peaks

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2.2.5. Spanish Independence War ().

2.2.6. Joseph Bonaparte aka Pepe Botella.
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2.3. Activities.()


2.4. Political Revolutions Quiz.



2.5. Congress of Vienna.
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Territorial Changes:
  • Russia was given most of the Duchy of Warsaw (Poland) and was allowed to keep Finland (which it had annexed from Sweden in 1809 and held until 1917).

  • Prussia was given two fifths of Saxony, parts of the Duchy of Warsaw (the Grand Duchy of Posen), Danzig, and the Rhineland/Westphalia.

  • A German Confederation of 38 states was created from the previous 360 of the Holy Roman Empire, under the presidency of the Austrian Emperor. Only portions of the territory of Austria and Prussia were included in the Confederation.

  • The Netherlands and the Southern Netherlands (approx. modern-day Belgium) were united in a constitutional monarchy, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, with the House of Orange-Nassau providing the king.

  • To compensate for the Orange-Nassau's loss of the Nassau lands to Prussia, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were to form a personal union under the House of Orange-Nassau, with Luxembourg (but not the Netherlands) inside the German Confederation.

  • Swedish Pomerania, given to Denmark a year earlier in return for Norway, was ceded by Denmark to Prussia. France received back Guadeloupe from Sweden in return for yearly installments to the Swedish king.

  • The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed.

  • Hanover gave up the Duchy of Lauenburg to Denmark, but was enlarged by the addition of former territories of the bishop of Munster and by the formerly Prussian East Frisia, and made a kingdom.

  • Most of the territorial gains of Bavaria, (Württemberg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, and Nassau were recognized). Bavaria also gained control of the Rhenish Palatinate and parts of the Napoleonic Duchy of Würzburg and Grand Duchy of Frankfurt. Hesse-Darmstadt, in exchange for giving up the Duchy of Westphalia to Prussia, received Rhenish Hesse with its capital at Mainz.

  • Austria regained control of the Tyrol and Salzburg; of the former Illyrian Provinces; of Tarnopol district (from Russia); received Lombardy-Venetia in Italy and Ragusa in Dalmatia. Former Austrian territory in Southwest Germany remained under the control of Württemberg and Baden, and the Austrian Netherlands were also not recovered.

  • Habsburg princes were returned to control of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Modena.

  • The Papal States were under the rule of the pope.

  • The United Kingdom was confirmed in control of the Cape Colony in Southern Africa; Tobago; Ceylon; and various other colonies in Africa and Asia. Other colonies, most notably the Dutch East Indies and Martinique, were restored to their previous owners.

  • The King of Sardinia was restored in Piedmont, Nice, and Savoy, and was given control of Genoa

  • The Duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were given to Marie Louise, Napoleon's wife.

  • The Duchy of Lucca was created for the House of Bourbon-Parma,

  • The Bourbon Ferdinand IV, King of Sicily was restored to control of the Kingdom of Naples.

  • The slave trade was condemned.

  • Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers, notably the Rhine and the Danube.

The Final Act was signed by representatives of Austria, France, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Sweden-Norway, and the United Kingdom. Spain did not sign the treaty but ratified it in 1817.


2.4. Independence of the Spanish Colonies in America ().

2.4.1. Simon Bolivar and San Martin Listening Activity ().

Simón Bolívar
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José de San Martín.
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2.5. Exam Photographs ().

UNIT 3. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION () ().



3.1. First Industrial Nation: England.

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3.2. Agricultural Industrial Revolution.

Steam Treshing
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Steam Ploughing
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3.3. A better transportation system: canals and railroads.

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3.3. Factories.

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3.4. Industrial Revolution in Europe.
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3.5 Child Labour.

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UNIT 4. NATIONS AND EMPIRES (1850-1914) ().


4.1. Unification of Germany.
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Kaiser William I

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Otto von Bismarck


4.2. Unification of Italy.
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Monumento a Victor Manuel II: el Altar de la Patria. Rome, Italy.
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Conde de Cavour

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Victor Manuel II



4.3. United States Secession War ().
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Jefferson Davies vs Abraham Lincoln.
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Robert E. Lee vs Ulysses S. Grant.
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Railroads. 1870. USA.
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Telegraph.
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Abraham Lincoln.
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Slavery in the United States.
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4.4. Colonial Empires by year 1800.

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4.4.1. Age of Imperialism. ()
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4.5. Berlin Conference Agreements: Colonisation of Africa.
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The General Act fixed the following points:
  • To gain public acceptance a primary point of the conference was the ending of slavery by Black and Islamic powers. Thus, an international prohibition of the slave trade throughout their respected spheres was signed by the European members.
  • The Congo Free State was confirmed as private property of the Congo Society thereby ensuring that Leopold's promises to keep the country open to all European investment was retained. Congo, two million square kilometers, was made essentially the property of Léopold II (but later would eventually become a Belgian colony).
  • The 14 signatory powers would have free trade throughout the Congo Basin as well as Lake Niassa and east of this in an area south of 5° N.
  • The Niger River and Congo River were made free for ship traffic.
  • A Principle of Effectivity (see below) was introduced to stop powers setting up colonies in name only.
  • Any fresh act of taking possession of any portion of the African coast would have to be notified by the power taking possession, or assuming a protectorate, to the other signatory powers.
  • Which regions each European power had an exclusive right to "pursue" the legal ownership of land (legal in the eyes of the other European powers).




4.6. Colonisation of Asia ().
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4.7. World Empires.
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4.8. Leopold II and the colonisation of Congo ().

4.9. Nations and Empires Listening Exam ().

4.10. Unit 4 Nations and Empires Crossword Activity ().

4.11. British Empire: Queen Victoria.



4.12. South Africa Colonisation.


4.12. China and Japan XIX Century.


4.13. An example of colonialism: Afghanistan ().



4.13. China and Japan XIX Century Listening Activity ().

UNIT 5. SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY.

5.1. Charles IV (1788-1808).

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5.1.2. Manuel Godoy.

“Three centuries later, the [Second] Treaty of Fontainebleau, concluded on October 27, 1807, by which the favorite of Carlos IV and the minion of his Queen, Don Manuel Godoy, the Prince of [the] Peace, contracted with Bonaparte for the partition of Portugal and the entrance of the French armies into Spain, caused a popular insurrection at Madrid against Godoy, the abdication of Carlos IV, the assumption of the throne by Ferdinand VII, his son, the entrance of the French army into Spain, and the following war of independence. Thus the Spanish war of independence commenced with a popular insurrection against the camarilla, then personified in Don Manuel Godoy…”
  • Karl Marx, “Revolutionary Spain,” New York Daily Tribune, 1854

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By 1795, Godoy had collected an impressive number of titles and honours:
  • “…the most Excellent Lord Don Manuel de Godoy y Alvarez de Faria, Rios, Sanchez Zarzosa, Prince of the Peace, Duke of Alcudia, Lord of Soto de Roma and of the State of Albala; Grandee of Spain of the first class; perpetual Regidor of the City of Santiago, Knight of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece, and Great Cross of the Royal and distinguished Spanish Order of Charles III; Commander of Valencia del Ventoso, Rivera, and Aceuchal in that of Santiago; Knight and Grand Cross of the religious Order of St. John; Counsellor of State; First Secretary of State and Despacho; Secretary to the Queen; Superintendent General of the Posts and Highways; Protector of the Royal Academy of the Noble Arts, and of the Royal Societies of Natural History, Botany, Chemistry, and Astronomy; Gentleman of the King's Chamber in employment; Captain-General of his Armies; Inspector and Major of the Royal Corps of Body Guards, etc, etc, etc…”


5.2. Spanish Independence War and the Constitution of Cadiz.
5.2.1. Spanish Independence War ().
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5.2.2. Constitution of Cadiz ().
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5.3. Ferdinand VII: Reaction, back to Ancient Regime. (1813-1833).
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Historian Stanley Payne says:He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history. Cowardly, selfish, grasping, suspicious, and vengeful, [he] seemed almost incapable of any perception of the commonwealth. He thought only in terms of his power and security and was unmoved by the enormous sacrifices of Spanish people to retain their independence and preserve his throne.


5.4. Riego Pronunciamiento and Liberal Triennium (1820-1823).
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5.5.The Ominous Decade (1823-1833).
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5.6. The Carlists War and the Regencies (1833-1843).
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Carlos María Isidro and Isabel II

5.6.1. Carlists War ().
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General Zumalacarregui

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Viva la Religión, Viva Carlos V

5.6.2. 1837 Constitution.
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5.6.3. Mendizabal "Desamortización", Progresista Party.
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Juan Álvarez Mendizabal

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5.6.4. End of Carlists War and Espartero's Regency, Progresista Party (1840-43).
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Abrazo de Vergara (Maroto y Espartero)

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Baldomero Espartero

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"A Espartero, el Pacificador. La Nación Agradecida." (confluencia de calles Alcalá/O'Donnel, Madrid. 1886, se pagó por suscripción popular.



5.7. Elizabeth II (1844-1854): Moderado Party Rule.
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Ramón María Narvaez

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5.8. Liberal Biennium (1854-1856).
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Baldomero Espartero

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Leopoldo O'Donnell


5.8.2. Desamortización de Madoz.
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5.9. Elizabeth II (1856-1868).

5.10. Sexenio Revolucionario.
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5.10.1. Amadeus Savoy Monarchy (1870-1873).

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5.10.2. I Republic (February 11 1873- December 29 1874).
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February 12 to 11 June

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June 11 to 18 July

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July 18 to September 7

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September 7 to January 3

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January 3 to December 30, 1874



5.11. Bourbon Restoration: Alfonso XII (1874-1885).
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5.12. Alfonso XIII (1885-1931).

5.12.1. Philippines and Cuba War.

5.13. ACTIVITIES.




UNIT 6. TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS (1914-1939) ().

6.1. Bismarck Alliances: 1870-1914.



6.2. Morocco and Conference of Algeciras Listening Exam ().

6.3.FIRST WORLD WAR ()

6.3.1. Europe 1914.
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6.3.FIRST WORLD WAR PHOTOGRAPHS

6.4. World War One Videos.


6.5. World War One Movies.

Paths of Glory. Director: Stanley Kubrick.


Lawrence of Arabia. Director: David Lean.


The Water Diviner. Director: Russell Crowe.


War Horse. Director: Steven Spielberg.


Gallipoli. Director: Peter Weir.



Captain Conan. Director: Bertrand Tavernier.